By William Rosen
The epic tale of the collision among one in every of nature?s smallest organisms and history?s mightiest empire
throughout the golden age of the Roman Empire, Emperor Justinian reigned over a territory that stretched from Italy to North Africa. It was once the zenith of his achievements and the final of them. In 542 advert, the bubonic plague struck. In weeks, the wonderful classical global of Justinian have been plunged into the medieval and glossy Europe was once born.
At its peak, 5 thousand humans died each day in Constantinople. towns have been thoroughly depopulated. It was once the 1st pandemic the area had ever identified and it left its indelible mark: whilst the plague eventually ended, greater than 25 million humans have been lifeless. Weaving jointly heritage, microbiology, ecology, jurisprudence, theology, and epidemiology, Justinian?s Flea is a different and sweeping account of the little recognized occasion that modified the process a continent.
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Extra info for Justinian's Flea: The First Great Plague and the End of the Roman Empire
Furthermore, the development of a carious lesion is favoured by a high and regular intake of sucrose, and this has been shown to lead to an increase in the proportions of S. g. S. sanguis) that are less tolerant of excess carbohydrate and low pH values, are inhibited. Longitudinal epidemiological studies, in which initially sound, but caries-susceptible, surfaces are monitored both clinically and microbiologically for a fixed length of time, are the only way that true cause-and-effect relationships between bacteria and disease can be established.
Mutans 'white spot'/ S. 3 Note: The viable counts are the mean value of several sites in the 'white spot' lesion and an equal number of sites on neighbouring sound enamel. Eight subjects were studied The results of longitudinal surveys of approximal surfaces have proved equivocal. This may be due to difficulties of repeated, accurate sampling of the same site, problems of diagnosing the early lesion by radiographs, or it may mean that the aetiology of the initiation of approximal caries is less clear-cut than that of fissures.
From the above, it is not surprising that the predominant cultivable flora from fissures, approximal surfaces and the gingival crevice are different, or that variations occur in the flora at a particular site in different individuals. The microbiology of fissure plaque has been determined using either 'artificial fissures' implanted in occlusal surfaces of pre-existing restorations, or by sampling 'natural' fissures. The flora is mainly Gram-positive and is dominated by streptococci, and extracellular-polysaccharide producing streptococci in particular.