By Paul Eggleton (auth.), David Edward Bignell, Yves Roisin, Nathan Lo (eds.)
Biology of Termites, a contemporary Synthesis brings jointly the most important advances in termite biology, phylogenetics, social evolution and biogeography made within the decade in view that Abe et al Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbioses, Ecology turned the normal glossy reference paintings on termite technology. development at the luck of the Kluwer booklet, David Bignell, Yves Roisin and Nathan Lo have introduced jointly within the new quantity many of the world’s top specialists on termite taxonomy, behaviour, genetics, caste differentiation, body structure, microbiology, mound structure, distribution and keep watch over. Very robust evolutionary and developmental issues run in the course of the person chapters, fed by means of new info streams from molecular sequencing, and for the 1st time it really is attainable to match the social enterprise of termites with that of the social Hymenoptera, concentrating on caste selection, inhabitants genetics, cooperative behaviour, nest hygiene and symbioses with microorganisms. New chapters were further on termite pheromones, termites as pests of agriculture and on harmful invasive species, and new molecular and cladistic frameworks are provided for clarifying taxonomy, particularly within the larger termites which dominate many tropical ecosystems. utilized entomologists, developmental and evolutionary biologists, microbial ecologists, sociobiologists and tropical agriculture experts will all enjoy the new insights supplied through this work.
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2003) first is that horizontal transfer occurred between Cryptocercus or a similar cockroach no longer extant and the ancestors of extant termites (Thorne 1990). e. parent to offspring) since then (Nalepa 1991). These hypotheses were tested in two recent molecular phylogenetic studies of members of two taxonomic groups of flagellates present in both termites and Cryptocercus punctulatus (members of the genus Trichonympha, and members of the genera Euconympha and Teranympha) (Ikeda-Ohtsubo and Brune 2009; Ohkuma et al.
The labrum, for example, is highly variable: it can be: tongue shaped (basal condition, Figs. 7a–d, g, i), bilobed (Termitinae, Fig. 7 l), asymmetrical (Termitinae, Fig. 7m), and guttered (Rhinotermitinae, Fig. 7e–f). The postmentum is usually enlarged, often with process or node. Soldier mandibles are also highly variable – sometimes reduced or vestigial (Rhinotermitinae, Termitidae: Nasutitermitinae, Figs. 7e–f, n–p). The fontanelle can be absent (basal condition, Fig. 7a–c), highly enlarged (Coptotermitinae, Fig.
From the proventriculus the food enters the midgut, which is the primary source of enzymes in most insects. The midgut has midgut caeca which are enzyme production and enzyme-product absorption sites. At the junction between the midgut and the hindgut are the Malpighian tubules, which have an excretory function. This junction also has a procotodeal valve in many insects. The partly digested food then passes into the hindgut, which is of variable length and structure, but usually contains a rectum and an anus.