Biology 12 by Leesa Blake, Meaghan Craven, Darcy Dobell, Nancy Flood, Gord

By Leesa Blake, Meaghan Craven, Darcy Dobell, Nancy Flood, Gord Jasper, Catherine Little, Adrienne Mason, Grace Price, Karin Banerd, Jonathan Bocknek, Marshall Letcher, D'Arcy Little

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C Make a chart to contrast exothermic and endothermic reactions in terms of energy. MC C MHR • Unit 1 Metabolic Processes UNIT INVESTIGATION PREP In the investigation at the end of the unit, you will design your own experiment. Be familiar with correct experimental procedure. How will you form your hypothesis? How will you plan your procedure? How will you determine your dependent and independent variables? 2 Enzymes as Catalysts E X P E C TAT I O N S Describe the structure and function of enzymes in cellular respiration.

Consider the following example as a case study of thermodynamic principles. Stacked beside the fire pit at your campsite are a stack of newspapers and a bundle of kindling that you intend to ignite to start a fire. The stack of paper and the wood are composed of cellulose, which is made up of complex carbon-based molecules. These molecules contain potential chemical energy. When you light the paper, the chemical bonds in the molecules are broken in a reaction with oxygen. During the reaction, thermal energy and light are released.

Therefore, biological systems require a constant supply of energy from the Sun to function. A measure of the tendency of a system to become unorganized is called entropy. Every transformation of energy creates more disorder in the universe. Therefore, we can restate the second law of thermodynamics as follows: every energy transformation increases the entropy of the universe. The conversion of chemical energy into thermal energy does not violate the first law of thermodynamics. If thermal energy is produced during a chemical reaction, it is still a form of energy.

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