Biogeography by Mark V. Lomolino

By Mark V. Lomolino

Thoroughly revised and up-to-date, Biogeography, moment version , summarises the varied methods to the research of the distributions of dwelling issues. ranging from basic proof and ideas, and assuming simply minimum wisdom of biology, geography and earth heritage, the books explains the relationships among styles of plant and animal distributions and the techniques that experience produced them.

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Extra resources for Biogeography

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A constructionist approach that organisms are central: phenotypes But, says Oyama, while predictability is an epistemological notion, that contingency is ontological, it concerns the nature of processes. These the approach stresses. As units of activity they can change in nongenetic different notions need not coincide; in fact, it is better to distinguish (organisms) instead of gene frequencies are the units of activity yet evolutionary significant ways, for example by taking on new habits. clearly between them.

12 A constructionist perspective equally opposes environment-centered stories and gene centered stories, because it is relationships, not entities that count: "The basic error of these entity based accounts is that they take networks of co-defining, co-constructing causes and attribute control to just one element in the network" (Gray 1992, 1 94) . In sum, this direction of constructionist thinking stresses a general approach to causal analysis rather than specific questions. As a general view it seems to me very right.

The difference-approach. A "monadic" way of express­ ing genetic causation is the "gene for x"-talk. In fact, genes do not cause traits; genetic differences cause differences in pheno­ typic outcome. As Wim van der Steen expresses it: "We should not construe 'genetic determination' as a one-place predicate but as a three-place predicate. For example, a difference in a feature between two organisms can be genetically determined in the sense that it results from a genetic difference between them" (Van der Steen, 1 993a, 27) .

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