Bioenergetics 3 by David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,

By David G. Nicholls, Stuart J. Ferguson,

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G. a hot water bottle). g. all living organisms). The complexity of the thermodynamic treatment of these systems increases as their isolation decreases. Open systems strictly require a non-equilibrium thermodynamic treatment; classical equilibrium thermodynamics cannot be applied precisely to open systems because the flow of matter across their boundaries precludes the establishment of a true equilibrium. The most significant contribution of equilibrium thermodynamics to bioenergetics comes from considering individual reactions or groups of reactions as closed systems, asking questions about the nature of the equilibrium state for that reaction, and establishing how far removed the actual reaction is from that eauilibrium state.

3,2 '~,msss, ..... ENE:RGY" ................. AND: DmSPLACEMENT~ ~ ..... ~ .... ' ......... FRO~ i. ~~~ ~ Since the first edition of Bioenergetics we have taken a rather unorthodox approach to Gibbs energy changes. Whereas the classical physical chemistry approach emphasizes standard free energies (a hypothetical condition where all components are present at unit activity), we prefer to discuss reactions purely in terms of displacement from equilibrium. This leads to considerably simpler, more intuitive and more symmetrical equations without sacrificing precision.

2) and the proton permeability induced in bilayers by the addition of proton translocators such as dinitrophenol. A transport process involving the obligatory coupling of two or more ions in parallel is termed symport or co-transport. In this book we shall use the shorthand A: B to denote symport of the species A and B. 7). The equivalent tightly coupled process where the transport of one ion is linked to the transport of another species in the opposite direction is termed antiport or exchange-diffusion, represented here in the form A/B for the antiport of A against B (Fig.

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