By Bernhard Sonnleitner
With contributions via quite a few specialists
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Extra info for Bioanalysis and Biosensors for Bioprocess Monitoring
205–207, 209], Delaguardia  and Jobst et al. . Co-immobilization of enzymes can be advantageous when compared with sequential operation . In general, the bio-part of the biosensor cannot be sterilized but, however, there is one report of an ethylene oxide sterilizable, implantable glucose biosensor . Because of the small size and the array-type of construction of modern biosensors, it may well be that there is a carry-over of reaction product from one part of the array to the next thus falsifying the results.
E. in vivo [184, 189]. g. [15, 55, 88, 121, 146, 197, 250–252, 271, 335], and effectors . 40 B. Sonnleitner Fig. 25. Schematic design of a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometer in which a monoseptic bioreaction takes place. Nuclei with a net magnetic moment align in a strong static magnetic field. An additional electromagnetic field can flip the orientation of the alignment provided the frequency (energy) is appropriate; this additional field is created by the transmitter coil. The corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance that occurs is associated with an energy uptake from the high frequency field which is detected by the receiver coil.
Miniaturized versions using micromachined instruments  or array detectors  have recently been reported. In the following, a non-exhaustive list of some examples is given to illustrate the versatility of these methods. Comberbach and Bu’lock  measured ethanol in the bioreactor head space every 6 min using an electro-pneumatic sampling system connected to a gas chromatograph. McLaughlin et al.  provided cell-free samples of a butanol/acetone bioreaction by means of a tangential flow ultrafiltration membrane; they determined the components also in the head space using a gas chromatograph.