Asia and Europe: Services Liberalisation by Jorge Braga De Macedo

By Jorge Braga De Macedo

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Experts in the field7 have pointed to a number of domestic and external conditions that contributed to the crisis. Weaknesses in the Financial Sector — A poor prudential supervisory regime, notably for loan classification and supervision practices, was too lax and lenient. e. bolstering stressed loans with new loans so payments on the old loans could be made. — With excessive government ownership of or involvement in banks, they became quasi-fiscal agents of government, providing an oblique mechanism for channelling government assistance to ailing industries.

They fear that their domestic services sectors are not yet fully developed and not sophisticated enough to withstand fully-fledged competition. — Some countries equate liberalisation with the surrender of economic sovereignty. Concerns over transactions on mode one are imminent. Provision of services through electronic means, such as tele-medicine, e-banking and distance learning, requires new legislation to capture the realities — perhaps a new breed of taxation and quality control measures. — Liberalisation could become politicised to the point that governments in power could not secure their constituencies.

The restriction of forward transactions to match real demand was also liberalised. 50 Those who wish to do forward transactions need no longer submit to the foreign exchange banks documents identifying business purposes for underlying transactions. Permission for firms’ overseas borrowings was also extended to less than one-year maturity, but only for firms considered financially sound. Financial institutions that met certain requirements were allowed to engage in foreign exchange businesses. Entry barriers for the foreign exchange broker market were significantly lowered; Commercial brokerage firms now may compete for profit opportunities.

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