Applications of Prolog by Attila Csenki

By Attila Csenki

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The crudest algorithms for solving problems of this kind, the so called blind search algorithms, use the network’s connectivity information only. We are going to consider examples, applications and Prolog implementations of blind search algorithms in this chapter. Since implementing solutions of problems based on search usually involves code of some complexity, modularization will enhance clarity, code reusability and readibility. In preparation for these more complex tasks in this chapter, Prolog’s module system will be discussed in the next section.

To remedy the situation, we could instead calculate the maximum total in an incremental fashion by using, for instance, assert/1 to save in the database the most recent maximum value of total. - bagof( A,admissible([1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8], A), As), length( As,L). L = 14833 Alternatively, the number of admissible permutations of {1, . . , n}, an , may be calculated by the recurrence relation an = n! − (f1n + f2n + . . + f(n−1)n + 1) “n” an−i i denotes the number of permutations of {1, . . , n} which leave exactly i entries fixed.

For example, the list [g, f, e, b, a, s] will stand for the path s → a → b → e → f → g. In Fig. 13, all paths we have been temporarily admitted to the agenda which arise by expanding the head of the head of the agenda. ) Immediately after expansion, however, those paths have been removed (indicated by /////) whose head features in the list of closed nodes in the line above. 14, p. 3 has been used with an auxiliary procedure EXTENDPATH. - depth first(s,g,Path). 3. 3. 3: DepthFirst(StartN ode, GoalN ode) comment: Depth First with Closed Nodes and Open Paths procedure ExtendPath([x1 , · · · , xN ], list) comment: To return [] if the first argument is [] for i ← 1 to N do listi ← [xi |list] return ([list1 , · · · , listN ]) main RootN ode ← StartN ode OpenP aths ← [[RootN ode]] ClosedN odes ← [] [[H|T ]|T ailOpenP aths] ← OpenP aths while⎧H = GoalN ode SuccList ← successors of H ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ N ewOpenN odes ← (SuccList ∩ ClosedListc ) ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨N ewP aths ← ExtendPath(N ewOpenN odes, [H|T ]) do OpenP aths ← N ewP aths ++ T ailOpenP aths ⎪ ⎪ if OpenP aths = [] ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ then return (f ailure) ⎪ ⎩ [[H|T ]|T ailOpenP aths] ← OpenP aths P ath ← Reverse([H|T ])5 output (P ath) In the query shown below, the predicate depth fist/3 thus defined finds the leftmost path to the goal node in Fig.

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