By Rajmund Michalski
Introduces the reader to the sector of ion chromatography, species research and hyphenated tools IC-MS and IC-ICP-MS together with the idea and theirs applications
- Covers the significance of species research and hyphenated equipment in ion chromatography
- Includes functional functions of IC-MS and IC-ICP-MS in environmental analysis
- Details pattern guidance tools for ion chromatography
- Discusses hyphenated tools IC-MS and IC-ICP-MS utilized in selecting either the whole point contents and its elements
- Details speciation research utilized in learning biochemical cycles of chosen chemicals; deciding upon toxicity and ecotoxicity of components; nutrition and prescription drugs quality controls; and in technological procedure regulate and medical analytics
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The detection method selection depends on the sample type, analyte concentration, applied columns, eluents, and sample preparation for the analysis . 4. 2. The electric conductivity measurement in the conductometric detector is based on the ability of the electrolyte solutions (placed in the electric field between two electrodes) to conduct the electric current. The electrodes are made of noble metals, which prevents chemical reactions on their surfaces. The following aspects affect the measured conductivity: type, equivalent conductance, and charge of ions; background (eluent) conductivity; conductometric cell constant; and temperature.
Since then, it has evolved from a simple method for separating main inorganic anions and cations in water into a sophisticated separation technique that may be coupled with modern detectors to detect trace substance amounts in various gaseous, liquid, and solid samples. Many changes introduced in the stationary phases of the ion-exchange columns have helped to extend the range of the applied eluents and detection methods. There has also been an enormous development in the sample preparation methods and suppression techniques.
Concentrated acids or bases must not be used there. It is also important to appropriately secure the containers with samples that are placed in the automatic feeder. When the analytical column is systematically used, its characteristics deteriorate. Consequently, the retention times of particular ions are reduced, whereas their peak shapes may be blurred and asymmetrical. The appropriate use of analytical columns requires the following: securing columns with systematically exchanged precolumns, using columns according to the manufacturer’s guidelines (pH, flow rate, pressure, organic solvents), using ultrapure water for eluent preparation, avoiding bacterial growth and sediment precipitation, avoiding drying and thermal/mechanical shock, avoiding column overloading, filtering each sample, and using cartridges for sample preparation whenever it is necessary.