By C. A. Rogers, J. E. Jayne et. al. (editors)
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8. Use Student’s t-test for small, normally distributed populations (number of samples is less than 30). 9. Use standard normal distribution (z-statistic) for large populations (number of samples is greater than 30). 10. A 90 percent conﬁdence level and a 10 percent error rate will be appropriate for most projects where mean concentrations are compared to action levels. 11. The EPA recommends an 80 percent conﬁdence level and a 20 percent error rate when comparing the mean concentrations to regulatory levels for decisions related to determining whether a waste is hazardous or not.
Statistical testing of the data collected, which assumes an asymmetrical, nonnormal distribution of the data from the entire area, is also proposed for the evaluation of the attainment of the action level. The ﬁnal outcome of the seventh step is a data collection design that meets both the project DQOs and the project budget. The team will document the outcome of the DQO process and the sampling design in a SAP or in a similar planning document. There are many different formats of documenting the DQO process outcome, from a simple tabular summary to an elaborate document complete with statistics and graphics.
Using a statistical test and the statistical parameters selected in Step 6, we will be able to control decision error and make decisions with a certain level of conﬁdence. Decision error, like total error, can only be minimized, but never entirely eliminated. However, we can control this error by setting a tolerable level of risk of an incorrect decision. Conducting Step 6 enables the planning team to specify acceptable probabilities of making an error (the tolerable limits on decision errors).